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It is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon — a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators — these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels.
It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality. It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste.
It is available and is sold particularly during the Lenten Starkbierzeit strong beer season , which begins on or before St. There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least one thousand seats, with four of the most famous and popular in the Englischer Garten: Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8, seats.
There are six main breweries in Munich: Also much consumed, though not from Munich and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are especially Tegernseer and Schneider Weisse , the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich just as the Munich breweries do.
The Circus Krone based in Munich is one of the largest circuses in Europe. Between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane party banana , a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning 1.
Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller Optimolwerke, there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen.
Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport.
Munich nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Establishments open and close every year, and some survive only a few months, while others last many years.
From to , Munich was also home to the Union Move , one of the largest technoparades in Germany. Munich has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Munich has more than night clubs and thousands of bars and restaurants within city limits.
Some notable nightclubs are: Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in The Max Planck Society , an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich.
The following institutes are located in the Munich area:. The Fraunhofer Society , the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich.
Munich has the strongest economy of any German city  and the lowest unemployment rate 3. Munich topped the ranking of the magazine Capital in February for the economic prospects between and in 60 German cities.
The breakdown by cities proper not metropolitan areas of Global cities listed Munich in 8th position in Munich is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the aircraft engine manufacturer MTU Aero Engines , the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei , the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri , the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg , lighting giant Osram , as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as Microsoft.
Munich has significance as a financial centre second only to Frankfurt , being home of HypoVereinsbank and the Bayerische Landesbank. It outranks Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz insurance and Munich Re re-insurance.
Munich has an extensive public transport system consisting of an underground metro, trams, buses and high-speed rail. In , the transport modal share in Munich was 38 percent public transport, 25 percent car, 23 percent walking, and 15 percent bicycle.
For its urban population of 2. The Munich tramway is the oldest existing public transportation system in the city, which has been in operation since Munich also has an extensive network of bus lines.
The extensive network of subway and tram lines assist and complement pedestrian movement in the city centre. These major spines and many smaller streets cover an extensive area of the centre that can be enjoyed on foot and bike.
The transformation of the historic area into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable.
These attributes result from applying the principle of "filtered permability" , which selectively restricts the number of roads that run through the centre.
While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths, which permeate the entire centre.
In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip see image.
The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts — the Fused Grid.
The average amount of time people spend commuting to and from work with public transit in Munich on a weekday is 56 min.
The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9. Cycling has a strong presence in the city and is recognised as a good alternative to motorised transport.
The growing number of bicycle lanes are widely used throughout the year. Munich cyclists have a reputation for being quite daring or even careless, being frequently seen as a nuisance by drivers, especially when their numbers multiply in the warmer months.
The cycle paths usually involve a longer route than by the road, as they are diverted around objects, and the presence of pedestrians can make them quite slow.
A modern bike hire system is available within the area bounded by the Mittlerer Ring. All stations are connected to the public transport system and serve as transportation hubs.
The mainline station is a terminal station with 32 platforms. The subterranean S-Bahn with 2 platforms and U-Bahn stations with 6 platforms are through stations.
In , the Berlin—Munich high-speed railway opened, providing a journey time of less than 4 hours between the two largest cities in Germany.
Munich is an integral part of the motorway network of southern Germany. Traffic, however, is often very heavy in and around Munich.
Traffic jams are commonplace during rush hour as well as at the beginning and end of major holidays in Germany. It replaced the smaller Munich-Riem airport in The airport can be reached by suburban train lines S8 from the east and S1 from the west of the city.
From the main railway station the journey takes 40—45 minutes. An express train will be added that will cut down travel time to 20—25 minutes with limited stops on dedicated tracks.
In , the Bavarian state government granted a license to expand Oberpfaffenhofen Air Station located west of Munich, for commercial use.
These plans were opposed by many residents in the Oberpfaffenhofen area as well as other branches of local Government, including the city of Munich, which took the case to court.
After , passenger traffic of nearby Augsburg Airport was relocated to Munich Airport, leaving the Augsburg region of Bavaria without an air passenger airport within close reach.
The Munich agglomeration sprawls across the plain of the Alpine foothills comprising about 2. Several smaller traditional Bavarian towns and cities like Dachau , Freising , Erding , Starnberg , Landshut and Moosburg are today part of the Greater Munich Region, formed by Munich and the surrounding districts, making up the Munich Metropolitan Region , which has a population of about 6 million people.
Munich is twinned with the following cities date of agreement shown in parentheses. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Place in Bavaria, Germany. History of Munich and Timeline of Munich. Population growth of Munich. This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. List of honorary citizens of Munich. Munich portal Bavaria portal.
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Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 5 May Mjunik Disco — from to now in German. Retrieved 1 May The music of the future will soon be history".
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Places adjacent to Munich. Eduard Schmid Karl Scharnagl. Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Bavaria in Germany.
Cities in Germany by population. Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich. Summer Olympic Games host cities. Rio de Janeiro Retrieved from " https: Municipalities in Bavaria Munich German state capitals Populated places established in the 12th century.
Retrieved 2 May World Weather Information Service. Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 21 April Lee Spence , born in , pioneer underwater archaeologist and shipwreck historian.
Stuttgart , Ulm , Augsburg. Nuremberg , Regensburg , Ingolstadt. Prague Czech Republic , Landshut. That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.
After the rise of Prussia to power, Bavaria preserved its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria.
Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War and did not belong to the North German Federation of , but the question of German unity was still alive.
Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation such as an army, railways, postal service and a diplomatic body of its own.
When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence, as Austria had.
As Bavaria had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant northerners of Prussia.
As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence.
In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Henrik Ibsen , and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity.
This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II. Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I in several German states.
To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria.
Eisner was assassinated in February , ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic being proclaimed 6 April The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate.
Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second.
Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria Party , most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany. Franconia in the north, speaking East Franconian German ; Bavarian Swabia in the south west, speaking Swabian German ; and Altbayern so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria before the acquisitions through the Vienna Congress, at present the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria speaking Austro-Bavarian.
In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there.
Uniquely among German states, Bavaria has two official flags of equal status, one with a white and blue stripe, the other with white and blue lozenges.
Either may be used by civilians and government offices, who are free to choose between them. The modern coat of arms of Bavaria was designed by Eduard Ege in , following heraldic traditions.
Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area , the border is completely open. Two major rivers flow through the state: The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg , and within the range is the highest peak in Germany: The geographic centre of the European Union is located in the north-western corner of Bavaria.
Bavaria is divided into 7 administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke singular Regierungsbezirk. The Bezirke in Bavaria are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke , but they are self-governing regional corporation, having their own parliaments.
In the other larger states of Germany, there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria.
The second communal layer exists out of 71 rural districts called Landkreise , singular Landkreis that are comparable to counties.
The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2, regular municipalities called Gemeinden , singular Gemeinde. In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of unincorporated areas as of 1 January , called gemeindefreie Gebiete , singular gemeindefreies Gebiet , not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes Chiemsee -without islands, Starnberger See -without island Roseninsel , Ammersee , which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See.
The German Greens and the center-right Free Voters have been represented in the state parliament since and respectively. However, in the subsequent elections the CSU lost the absolute majority for the first time in 46 years.
The Greens who had surged in the polls leading up to the election have replaced the social-democratic SPD as the second biggest force in the Landtag with The SPD lost over half of its previous share compared to with a mere 9.
Also entering the new parliament will be the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany AfD with Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag English: State Parliament , elected by universal suffrage.
Until December , there was also a Senat , or Senate , whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in , this institution was abolished.
The Minister-President is elected for a period of five years by the State Parliament and is head of state. With the approval of the State Parliament he appoints the members of the State Government.
The State Government is composed of the:. In Bavaria introduced direct democracy on the local level in a referendum. This was initiated bottom-up by an association called Mehr Demokratie English: This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums.
In the Bavarian Supreme Court aggravated the regulations considerably including by introducing a turn-out quorum. Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany.
The difference from other states is purely terminological, as German constitutional law does not draw a distinction between "States" and "Free States".
The situation is thus analogous to the United States, where some states use the style "Commonwealth" rather than "State".
The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to or translation of the Latin-derived "republic", has historical reasons, Bavaria having been styled that way even before the current Constitution was enacted in after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III.
Two other states, Saxony and Thuringia , also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz was enacted but joined the federation later on, in , as a result of German reunification.
Saxony had used the designation as "Free State" from to Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter.
Bavaria has a GDP per capita of over U. Meaning that if it were its own independent country it would rank 7th or 8th [ citation needed ] in the world.
The unemployment rate stood at 2. Bavaria has a population of approximately All other cities in Bavaria had less than , inhabitants in Population density in Bavaria was per sq.
Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany. Noteworthy differences especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities can be found with respect to religion, traditions, and language.
Bavarian culture Altbayern has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.
As of [update] Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females.
Centuries-old folk music is performed. There are a lot of traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e. Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions.
They hold festivals and dances to keep their traditions alive. In New York City the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others such as the Bavarian organizations, which represent a specific part of Germany.
They proudly put forth a German Parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers.
Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. Bavarians are particularly proud [ citation needed ] of the traditional Reinheitsgebot , or beer purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria for the City of Munich i.
According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: In the Reinheitsgebot made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany until the EU partly struck it down in as incompatible with the European common market.
Bavaria is also home to the Franconia wine region , which is situated along the Main River in Franconia. The region has produced wine Frankenwein for over 1, years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel wine bottle.
The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals Weinfeste throughout the year.
Mainly three German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: In the small town Ludwigsstadt in the north, district Kronach in Upper Franconia, Thuringian dialect is spoken.
In the 20th century an increasing part of the population began to speak Standard German , mainly in the cities. Bavarians consider themselves to be egalitarian and informal.
In traditional Bavarian beer gardens, patrons may bring their own food but buy beer only from the brewery that runs the beer garden.
In the United States, particularly among German Americans , Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, and several "Bavarian villages" have been founded, most notably Frankenmuth, Michigan ; Helen, Georgia ; and Leavenworth, Washington.
Since , the latter has been styled with a Bavarian theme and is home to an Oktoberfest celebration it claims is among the most attended in the world outside of Munich.
Bavaria is home to several football clubs including FC Bayern Munich , 1. Bayern Munich is the most popular and successful football team in Germany having won a record 27 German titles.
They are followed by 1. Plassenburg Castle in Kulmbach. Basilica of the Vierzehnheiligen. Veste Coburg in Coburg. Festspielhaus of Richard Wagner in Bayreuth.
Kastell Biriciana, Weissenburg close to the Limes. Castle of Neuburg an der Donau.
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