Zeppelin englisch

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zeppelin englisch

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Zeppelin" – Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Englisch-Übersetzungen. afdp.eu | Übersetzungen für '[Zeppelin]' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Übersetzungen für zeppelin im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:zeppelin.

The Art Deco spire of the Empire State Building was originally designed to serve as a mooring mast for Zeppelins and other airships, although it was found that high winds made this impossible and the plan was abandoned.

The framework of most Zeppelins was made of duralumin a combination of aluminum and copper as well as two or three other metals— its exact content was kept a secret for years.

The first Zeppelins had long cylindrical hulls with tapered ends and complex multi-plane fins. They were propelled by several engines , mounted in gondolas or engine cars, which were attached to the outside of the structural framework.

Some of these could provide reverse thrust for manoeuvring while mooring. Early models had a comparatively small externally mounted gondola for passengers and crew which was attached to the bottom of the frame.

This space was never heated fire outside of the kitchen was considered too risky so passengers during trips across the North Atlantic or Siberia were forced to bundle themselves in blankets and furs to keep warm and were often miserable with the cold.

By the time of the Hindenburg, several important changes had taken place: The flight ceiling was so low that no pressurization of the cabins was necessary, though the Hindenburg did maintain a pressurized air-locked smoking room no flame allowed, however— one electric lighter was maintained permanently inside the room.

Access to Zeppelins was achieved in a number of ways. The Hindenburg also had passenger gangways that led from the ground directly into its hull and which could then be withdrawn entirely, ground access to the gondola and an exterior access hatch via its electrical room; this was intended for crew use only.

Count Zeppelin began to seriously pursue his project after his early retirement from the military in at the age of Convinced of the potential importance of aviation, he started working on various designs in , and had completed detailed designs by An official committee reviewed his plans in , [2] and he received a patent, granted on 31 August , [12] with Theodor Kober producing the technical drawings.

The front section, containing the crew and engines, was Zeppelin also sought support from the industrialist Carl Berg , then engaged in construction work on the second airship design of David Schwarz.

The intention behind the floating hall was to facilitate the difficult task of bringing the airship out of the hall, as it could easily be aligned with the wind.

The first flight took place on 2 July over Lake Constance. Despite this performance, the shareholders declined to invest more money, and so the company was liquidated, with Count von Zeppelin purchasing the ship and equipment.

The Count wished to continue experimenting, but he eventually dismantled the ship in This renewed the interest of the German military, but a condition of purchase of an airship was a hour endurance trial.

During the stop, a storm tore the airship away from its moorings on the afternoon of 5 August It crashed into a tree, caught fire, and quickly burnt out.

No one was seriously injured. Before World War I — the Zeppelin company manufactured 21 more airships.

The airship remained on the ground until the following day, permitting a detailed examination by French airship experts.

The airships did not provide a scheduled service between cities, but generally operated pleasure cruises, carrying twenty passengers.

The airships were given names in addition to their production numbers. On 28 June it set off on a voyage to publicise Zeppelins, carrying 19 journalists as passengers.

A combination of adverse weather and engine failure brought it down at Mount Limberg near Bad Iburg in Lower Saxony, its hull getting stuck in trees.

All passengers and crew were unhurt, except for one crew member who broke his leg when he jumped from the craft. By the outbreak of World War I in August flights had carried 10, fare-paying passengers.

On 18 January Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz , Secretary of State of the German Imperial Naval Office, obtained the agreement of Kaiser Wilhelm II to a five-year program of expansion of German naval-airship strength, involving the building of two airship bases and constructing a fleet of ten airships.

The Navy was left with three partially trained crews. During the war the Navy Zeppelins were mainly used in reconnaissance missions.

Early offensive operations by Army airships revealed that they were extremely vulnerable to ground fire unless flown at high altitude, and several were lost.

No bombs had been developed, and the early raids dropped artillery shells instead. Flying at a relatively low altitude because of cloud cover, the airship was damaged by small-arms fire and was destroyed in a forced landing near Bonn.

Paris mounted a more effective defense against zeppelin raids than London. Zeppelins attacking Paris had to first fly over the system of forts between the front and the city, from which they were subjected to antiaircraft fire with reduced risk of collateral damage.

The French also maintained a continuous patrol of two fighters over Paris at an altitude from which they could promptly attack arriving zeppelins avoiding the delay required to reach the zeppelin altitude.

Airship operations in the Balkans started in the autumn of , and an airship base was constructed at Szentandras.

The crew survived but were taken prisoner. At the instigation of the Kaiser a plan was made to bomb Saint Petersburg in December Two Navy zeppelins were transferred to Wainoden on the Courland Peninsula.

A preliminary attempt to bomb Reval on 28 December ended in failure caused by operating problems due to the extreme cold, and one of the airships was destroyed in a forced landing at Serappen.

The plan was subsequently abandoned. It was then used for reconnaissance and bombing missions in the eastern Mediterranean. It flew one bombing mission against Naples on 10—11 March A planned attack on Suez was turned back by high winds, and on 7 April it was on a mission to bomb the British naval base at Malta when it caught fire over the Straits of Otranto , with the loss of all its crew.

The main use of the airship was in reconnaissance over the North Sea and the Baltic , and the majority of airships manufactured were used by the Navy.

Patrolling had priority over any other airship activity. The German Navy had some 15 Zeppelins in commission by the end of and was able to have two or more patrolling continuously at any one time.

However their operations were limited by weather conditions. At this stage in the war there was no clear doctrine for the use of Naval airships.

In patrols were only carried out on days, and in other years the total was considerably less. In the British Navy began to take effective countermeasures against airship patrols over the North Sea.

In April the first Curtiss H. Leckie which had been alerted following interception of its radio traffic. Smart succeeded in shooting the Zeppelin down in flames.

At the beginning of the conflict the German command had high hopes for the airships, which were considerably more capable than contemporary light fixed-wing machines: Contrary to expectation, it was not easy to ignite the hydrogen using standard bullets and shrapnel.

These raids were followed by the Cuxhaven Raid on Christmas Day , one of the first operations carried out by ship-launched aeroplanes.

Airship raids on Great Britain were approved by the Kaiser on 7 January , although he excluded London as a target and further demanded that no attacks be made on historic buildings.

The airships relied largely on dead reckoning , supplemented by a radio direction-finding system of limited accuracy. After blackouts became widespread, many bombs fell at random on uninhabited countryside.

The first raid on England took place on the night of 19—20 January The Kaiser authorised the bombing of the London docks on 12 February , [57] but no raids on London took place until May.

Two Navy raids failed due to bad weather on 14 and 15 April, and it was decided to delay further attempts until the more capable P class Zeppelins were in service.

In total some bombs were dropped on a line stretching from Stoke Newington south to Stepney and then north toward Leytonstone.

Seven people were killed and 35 injured. Aware of the problems that the Germans were experiencing in navigation, this raid caused the government to issue a D notice prohibiting the press from reporting anything about raids that was not mentioned in official statements.

Only one of the 15 defensive sorties managed to make visual contact with the enemy, and one of the pilots, Flt Lieut D. Barnes, was killed on attempting to land.

The first naval attempt on London took place on 4 June: Warneford , who dropped six bombs on the airship, setting it on fire.

All but one of the crew died. Warneford was awarded the Victoria Cross for his achievement. The Navy resumed raids on Britain in August, when three largely ineffective raids were carried out.

Mistaking the reservoirs of the Lea Valley for the Thames, it dropped its bombs on Walthamstow and Leytonstone. One Zeppelin targeted the benzol plant at Skinningrove and three set off to bomb London: This exploded near Smithfield Market , destroying several houses and killing two men.

Mathy then turned east, dropping his remaining bombs on Liverpool Street station. The Zeppelin was the target of concentrated antiaircraft fire, but no hits were scored and the falling shrapnel caused both damage and alarm on the ground.

The raid killed 22 people and injured After three more raids were scattered by the weather, a five-Zeppelin raid was launched by the Navy on 13 October, the "Theatreland Raid.

None of the other Zeppelins reached central London: A total of 71 people were killed and injured. Although these raids had no significant military impact, the psychological effect was considerable.

Lawrence described one raid in a letter to Lady Ottoline Morrell: Then we saw the Zeppelin above us, just ahead, amid a gleaming of clouds: Then there was flashes near the ground — and the shaking noise.

It was like Milton — then there was war in heaven. I cannot get over it, that the moon is not Queen of the sky by night, and the stars the lesser lights.

It seems the Zeppelin is in the zenith of the night, golden like a moon, having taken control of the sky; and the bursting shells are the lesser lights.

The raids continued in Searchlights were introduced, initially manned by police. By mid, there were anti-aircraft guns and searchlights across England.

Initially the War Office had believed that the Zeppelins used a layer of inert gas to protect themselves from incendiary bullets, and favoured the use of bombs or devices like the Ranken dart.

However, by mid an effective mixture of explosive, tracer and incendiary rounds had been developed. There were 23 airship raids in , in which tons of bombs were dropped, killing people and injuring The first raid of was carried out by the German Navy.

Nine Zeppelins were sent to Liverpool on the night of 31 January—1 February. A combination of poor weather and mechanical problems scattered them across the Midlands and several towns were bombed.

A total of 61 people were reported killed and injured by the raid. Further raids were delayed by an extended period of poor weather and also by the withdrawal of the majority of Naval Zeppelins in an attempt to resolve the recurrent engine failures.

Ten airships set off on 31 March: Most of the 48 killed in the raid were victims of a single bomb which fell on an Army billet in Cleethorpes. The Zeppelin raid achieved very little; four turned back early and the rest wandered over a fog-covered landscape before giving up.

Zeppelins were very difficult to attack successfully at high altitude, although this also made accurate bombing impossible.

These had become available by September The biggest raid to date was launched on 2—3 September, when twelve German Navy and four Army airships set out to bomb London.

A combination of rain and snowstorms scattered the airships while they were still over the North Sea.

Only one of the naval airships came within seven miles of central London, and both damage and casualties were slight. William Leefe Robinson , who fired three round drums of Brocks and Buckingham ammunition into the airship.

The third drum started a fire and the airship was quickly enveloped in flames. It fell to the ground near Cuffley , witnessed by the crews of several of the other Zeppelins and many on the ground; there were no survivors.

The German Navy remained aggressive, [86] and another Zeppelin raid was launched on 23—24 September. Eight older airships bombed targets in the Midlands and northeast, while four R-class Zeppelins attacked London.

The entire crew was killed. As it headed towards Chelmsford it began to lose height and came down close to Little Wigborough.

The next raid came on 1 October Eleven Zeppelins were launched at targets in the Midlands and at London. As the airship neared Cheshunt at about All 19 crew died, many jumping from the burning airship.

For the next raid, on 27—28 November, the Zeppelins avoided London for targets in the Midlands. Again the defending aircraft were successful: The surviving R-class Zeppelins were adapted by removing one of the engines.

The first raid of did not occur until 16—17 March: Two days later 21 Gotha bombers attempted a daylight raid on London. They were frustrated by heavy cloud but the effort led the Kaiser to announce that airship raids on London were to stop; under pressure he later relented to allow the Zeppelins to attack under "favourable circumstances".

On 16—17 June, another raid was attempted. Six Zeppelins were to take part, but two were kept in their shed by high winds and another two were forced to return by engine failure.

After ineffective raids on the Midlands and the north of England on 21—22 August and 24—25 September, the last major Zeppelin raid of the war was launched on 19—20 October, with 13 airships heading for Sheffield , Manchester and Liverpool.

All were hindered by an unexpected strong headwind at altitude. The airship then had mechanical failure in three engines and was blown over France, eventually coming down near Sisteron ; it was set on fire and the crew surrendered.

There were no more raids in , although the airships were not abandoned but refitted with new, more powerful, engines.

Later, Zeppelin traveled to the Upper Midwest with a party that probably included two Russians. Led by Native American probably Ojibwe guides, they canoed and portaged from the western end of Lake Superior up the St.

Paul via stagecoach and hired carriage , Zeppelin encountered German-born itinerant balloonist John Steiner and made his first aerial ascent with him from a site near the International Hotel in downtown St.

Paul on 19 August. In he gave up this post to return to army service, being given command of a Prussian cavalry brigade. His handling of this at the autumn manouevres was severely criticised and he was forced to retire from the Army, [9] albeit with the rank of Generalleutnant.

Von Zeppelin then travelled to St. His first ascent in a balloon, made at Saint Paul, Minnesota during this visit, is said to have been the inspiration of his later interest in aeronautics.

Inspired by a recent lecture given by Heinrich von Stephan on the subject of "World Postal Services and Air Travel", he outlined the basic principle of his later craft: After his resignation from the army in at age 52, Zeppelin devoted his full attention to airships.

He also had air propellers tested and strove to obtain higher purity hydrogen gas from suppliers. The next day Zeppelin almost gave up as he realized he had underestimated air resistance, [15] but resumed work on hearing that Rudolf Hans Bartsch von Sigsfeld made light but powerful engines, information soon shown to be overoptimistic.

Whereupon Zeppelin urged his supporter Max von Duttenhofer to press Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft for more efficient engines so as not to fall behind the French.

After publishing the idea in March he hired the engineer Theodor Kober who started work testing and further refining the design. The front section, intended to contain the crew and engines, was Berg had signed a contract with Schwartz under the terms of which he undertook not to supply aluminium to any other airship manufacturer.

The airship rose from the ground and remained in the air for 20 minutes, but was damaged on landing. It was completed by 30 November, when it was first taken out of its hangar, but a ground-handling mishap caused the bows to be pulled into the water, damaging the forward control surfaces.

Here a stiff breeze was encountered, and although the airship was at first able to overcome this, the failure of the forward engine due to cooling problems followed by the failure of the other due to a broken clutch-spring left the airship at the mercy of the wind.

This first flew on 20 June In spite of poor weather conditions, the flight succeeded: McGarvey, owner of the oil wells of Galicia and his wife, Helena J.

A former Count von Zeppelin married a granddaughter of the 1st Earl of Ranfurly. Count Zeppelin died in , before the end of World War I, therefore he did not witness either the provisional shutdown of the Zeppelin project due to the Treaty of Versailles or the second resurgence of the Zeppelins under his successor Hugo Eckener.

The name of the British rock group Led Zeppelin derives from his airship as well. His granddaughter Countess Eva von Zeppelin once threatened to sue them for illegal use of their family name while they were performing in Copenhagen.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Zeppelin disambiguation and Graf Zeppelin disambiguation.

Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original on 20 February

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